Internal Friction Characterization in Lead-Free Ferroelectrics for Ultrasonic Generation

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Abstract
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Lorena Pardo Pardo, L.(Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas); Ferroelectric solid solutions based on PbTiO3, mainly the one with lead zirconate (PbZrO3), also known as PZT, dominate the industrial applications of ferro-piezoelectric materials in polycrystalline form, also known as piezoelectric ceramics. The use of PbO in the fabrication of PZT and the end of the life-cycle of this omnipresent material involves hazards for the human health and the environment [1]. European Union regulations arising in 2003 [2,3] were the first to include the substitution of PZT with lead-free ferroelectrics. These regulations triggered the study of lead-free ferro-piezoelectrics [4] and are now worldwide extended. This scientific research field experienced a strong growth from that time [5] and has reached today a great level of maturity in some scientific themes, industrial transference and expansion of the topic from the scientific community to the society and to the business schools [6]. In-operando characterization techniques of the materials as ultrasonic generators, including elastic, dielectric and piezoelectric losses are presented [7,8]. Ecological, lead-free, ferroelectrics perovskites based on BaTiO3 and Ba substituted (Bi0.5Na0.5)TiO3 are here considered and matrix characterization of potentially applicable compositions is discussed. [1] M. Kosec, B. Malic, W. Wolny, A. James, C. Alemany and L. Pardo. “Effect of a chemically aggressive environment on the electromechanical behaviour of modified lead titanate ceramics”. J Korean Phys Soc, 32 (1998), p. S1163-S6 [2]”EU-Directive 2002/96/EC: Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment (WEEE)” Off. J. Eur. Union, 46 [L37] 24–38 (2003). [3]”EU-Directive 2002/95/EC: Restriction of the Use of Certain Hazardous Substances in Electrical and Electronic Equipment (RoHS)” Off. J. Eur. Union, 46 [L37] 19–23 (2003). [4] E. Ringgaard and T. Wurlitzer “Lead-free piezoceramics based on alkali niobates” J. Eur. Ceram. Soc., 25 (12) 2701-2706 (2005) [5] Rödel, J.; Webber, K.G.; Dittmer, R.; Jo, W.; Kimura, M.; Damjanovic, D. “Transferring lead-free piezoelectric ceramics into application”. J. Eur. Ceram. Soc. 2015, 35, 1659–1681. [6] T. Ibn-Mohammed, S. C. L. Koh, I. M. Reaney, D. C. Sinclair, K. B. Mustapha, A. Acquaye, D. Wang. “Are lead-free piezoelectrics more environmentally friendly?” MRS Communications (2017), DOI: https://doi.org/10.1557/mrc.2017.10 [7] L. Pardo, A. García, F.M. de Espinosa and K. Brebøl “Shear Resonance Mode Decoupling to Determine the Characteristic Matrix of Piezoceramics For 3-D Modelling”. IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 2011, 58, 646–657. [8] A. M. González, Á. García, C. Benavente-Peces and L. Pardo “Revisiting the Characterization of the Losses in Piezoelectric Materials from Impedance Spectroscopy at Resonance” Materials 2016, 9(2), 72
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